1) Many deterministic worlds exist, cohered together.
Postulated many-worlds exist cohered within a non-spatial dimension of worlds. Each independent world behaves per classical, Newtonian, cause-and-effect mechanics.
2) Cohered worlds interact per the uncertainty principle, leading to differences in their state.
Interaction between cohered worlds is a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Such interaction causes what had been identical worlds to vary in the state of their objects. Those objects remain cohered in superposition while differences in their state remain unobserved. Each unique state of an object, as represented by its wave function, exists in a different world. All wave behavior is a manifestation of cohered worlds that differ in state.
In their 2014 paper Quantum Phenomena Modeled by Interactions between Many Classical Worlds Hall et al. report reproducing quantum mechanical behavior within simulations of interacting worlds. The scientists state, "We show that the MIW approach is capable of reproducing some well-known quantum phenomena, including Ehrenfest’s theorem, wave packet spreading, barrier tunneling, zero-point energy, and a Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation."
3) Observation of a particular state causes the involved worlds to decohere.
Any interaction that reveals a difference in state between cohered worlds constitutes measurement (observation). Upon observation of an object's state, the observer decoheres relative to the object. Decoherence means each observer across many worlds separates into the world(s) in which the object exists in the state each respectively observed. Via this process each observer becomes entangled in the world(s) of the object. Decoherence separates different worlds by their observed states, and renders different worlds unable to continue to interact. Reality's total decoherence, like entropy, increases with time.
Interacting cohered worlds influence each other.
Such interaction is the most straightforward explanation for wave behavior in double-slit experiments involving particles sent individually. Though only one particle passes through the double-slit apparatus at a time, that happens concurrently in each of multiple cohered worlds that differ in state. In this experiment, the relevant difference of state is the slit through which the particle passes. The particles passing through different slits in different worlds interact across worlds, yielding interference that exhibits as wave behavior in each world.
When a double-slit experiment observer measures particle path which-slit information, he determines the which-slit state of the world he occupies. Observation of state triggers decoherence. In this case, the observer decoheres away from worlds in a different which-slit state, and remains cohered only with worlds in the same which-slit state. In those worlds, all cohered particles are passing through the same slit, so no interference occurs, and consequently the observer finds that wave behavior ceases.
MIWOI is part of the quest to find realism behind the apparent oddities of quantum mechanics. Such refinements to the quantum model can facilitate better understanding and new insights.
Standard quantum physics is already known to be involved in many natural and man-made processes, such as solar fusion, and the operation of computer electronics. The addition of interaction to the standard understanding offers new ways to view these processes and suggests new experiments.
In what ways do worlds interact? Do more than particles interact, for example, do gravitational fields cross worlds? Might such interaction be involved in dark matter and/or dark energy? One possibility can be explored via an experiment that compares the field strength of cohered matter with that of decohered. This Dark Coherence experiment is detailed in Part III of the book Reality's Prism.
What is MIWOI?
MIWOI is a model of how the reality around us operates. More specifically, it is a version of Many-Interacting Worlds (MIW), which itself is a version of the Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) of quantum mechanics.
How does many-interacting worlds (MIW) of Hall, et al. differ from a standard many-worlds interpretation (MWI)?
Under MIW all quantum phenomena arise from interaction in the form of a force of repulsion between worlds that tends to make them more dissimilar.
How does MIWOI differ from the many-interacting worlds (MIW) of Hall, et al.?
MIWOI views interaction between cohered worlds as a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Due to that uncertainty, matter and energy interact among cohered worlds, yielding wave behavior and all other quantum phenomena. Additionally, the MIWOI model suggests gravitational fields may extend across cohered worlds. Part III of the book Reality's Prism outlines an experiment to explore that.
What is coherence?
MIWOI envisions coherence binding dissimilar worlds together within a non-spatial worlds dimension, such that upon decoherence (wave function collapse), the worlds that had been cohered separate from each other, preventing further interaction between those worlds.
Coherence refers to worlds in different states being grouped together because their difference has not yet been observed. Objects in those worlds can also be considered cohered. If you have not yet measured the result of a quantum coin flip, you are cohered with all the copies of you in other worlds who similarly have not yet observed that coin flip, including those who are about to witness a different flip outcome.
Under MIWOI, what constitutes measurement?
Measurement is any interaction that reveals a difference in state between cohered worlds. Such a measurement triggers decoherence such that worlds observed in different states separate from each other and cease to interact.
Why does decoherence occur?
Decoherence is essential for the operation of deterministic reality as we know it. Without decoherence to break the effects of interaction from other worlds, the rules of classical Newtonian mechanics would be violated. For example, even while being observed, particles would be constantly influenced at random by others in other worlds, changing direction willy-nilly with no apparent cause. Such small-scale effects would build, leaving unpredictability and chaos.
Is an entire new world created upon a measurement?
No, all worlds exist both before and after a measurement. Measurement simply ends the coherence between worlds observed to be unalike. By measuring, an observer separates away from his counterparts in worlds in which their measurement returned a different value. MIWOI prefers the word Heisenberg used: reduce. By separating from his counterparts in unalike worlds, a given observer reduces the number of worlds in which he remains cohered.
Is the number of worlds infinite?
Our observable 3-D universe appears to extend only so far. It may of course extend farther, but that is beyond observation, and quantum mechanics says observation is an important part of reality. MIWOI presumes that if the three dimensions we easily see are bounded, the number of worlds is as well.
Do things work differently at the quantum realm than they do at the macroscopic realm?
No, under MIWOI physical size or mass is not as important as observability. Per the Schrödinger's Cat thought experiment, a macroscopic object like a cat can be cohered in superposition in the same manner as tiny particles or photons.
How does MIWOI explain wave-particle duality?
Each of us exists cohered in a superposition of states relative to every object, but since we observe macroscopic objects routinely and without special effort, we do not notice decoherence is occurring relative to them, but it is. Conversely, coherence persists for very small objects only because we cannot observe them directly with our senses until we use instruments to magnify their properties, and only then does decoherence happen. Observation causes decoherence, regardless of the object's size.
Under MIWOI, if you see particles, you're looking at one world, while if you see waves, you're looking at the interaction of multiple worlds. Note that "one world" can be a set of multiple worlds, all of which are in the same state, so some might prefer the following wording: see particles and you're looking at one world-state, see waves and you're looking at multiple world-states.
What is entanglement?
Objects that are entangled exist in the same world, or set of worlds so far observed to be identical.
What about Einstein's "spooky action at a distance" concerns?
Einstein was troubled by the quantum implication supported by Bohr that decohering entangled particles can influence each other even if not local (not in contact). There are at least two ways to resolve the difference between Einstein and Bohr with regard to locality. Perhaps the simplest way is to accept that decoherence does not involve objects influencing each other. If you prefer to think decoherence is influence, resolution comes when one realizes both Einstein and Bohr were limiting their locality thinking to three dimensions. Under MIWOI, though particles may be separated by a great distance in 3-D space, when those particles share the same world they can be thought in contact in the worlds dimension, where they can interact via that dimension. MIWOI is considered a "non-local theory" since it invokes elements outside local 3-D space.
What is the worlds dimension?
The MIWOI model considers worlds to exist within a non-spatial higher dimension. Much like a movie of history consists of still images at different times, the worlds dimension consists of individual worlds in different states.
Why is having proper realism important?
Just as correct math can make testable predictions, so can realism. A proper realism makes quantum physics more accessible to more people, and that can lead to new insights that can be tested.
Is there a list of MIWOI's primary understandings and conclusions?
- Many worlds, essentially copies of the known universe, exist in a non-spatial dimension of worlds.
- By definition, each set of identical worlds contains at least one object that differs in state from that in another set of identical worlds.
- Each state represented by the wave function exists in a different world.
- Each world operates deterministically, that is, per classical physics.
- There is no exclusive "quantum realm" or "quantum level," instead objects of any size can be cohered in superposition. Instead, observability is key.
- From an observer's perspective, objects in different states, and thus different worlds, appear cohered together in superposition until that observer measures a difference between them.
- While in superposition, objects in different states interact, by which they demonstrate wave behavior.
- The limit of mass that can interact across worlds is the Planck mass.
- Measurement is any interaction sufficient to reveal the value of an object's state.
- The probability of any one observer's measurement finding a particular value of a state is specified by the wave function and Born rule.
- Measuring an object's state triggers decoherence of worlds in which the object exists in other states, thus separating off formerly-cohered worlds such that they no longer interact.
- Upon decoherence, objects separate from others in different states with which they had been interacting, so wave behavior reduces to particle behavior.
- From the observer's perspective, upon decoherence only objects matching the observed state, plus objects or states yet to be measured, remain cohered.
- Measurement of an object's state causes the observer to become entangled in the world(s) in which that object exists in the observed state. Entangled objects share the same world(s).
- If an entangled pair of objects has a correlated property, an observer that becomes entangled with either member of the pair joins the pair's world, and thus becomes entangled with both its members. This can create the illusion of "spooky action at a distance."